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Binocular vision dysfunction

Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD) refers to a condition where the two eyes fail to work together in harmony, leading to vision misalignment and a range of symptoms like double vision, eyestrain, and headaches. BVD is mainly underdiagnosed and impacts about 20% of the population. 

bvd eye strain


Blurry vision
Double vision
A sense of imbalance
Painful headaches or migraines
Dizziness spells
Dizziness while driving
Difficulty Focusing

Light sensitivity 


Prism Glasses: Special lenses that help realign the images seen by each eye, making it easier for the brain to merge them into a single image.

Vision Therapy: A series of supervised exercises and activities aimed at improving eye coordination, eye movements, and visual processing skills. 

Surgery: In severe cases, or when conservative treatments don't provide relief, surgical interventions might be recommended to correct muscle imbalances or alignment issues. 

vision therapy adult

Causes of Binocular vision dysfunction

  • Muscle Imbalance: One of the primary reasons is an imbalance in the eye muscles. One eye may turn slightly inward, outward, upward, or downward compared to the other, causing misalignment.

  • Nerve Damage: Trauma or conditions that damage the nerves controlling the eye muscles can result in BVD.

  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Head injuries, even minor ones, can cause issues with binocular vision. It's not uncommon for post-concussion patients to experience symptoms of BVD.

  • Congenital Issues: Some people are born with eye alignment issues, which can manifest as BVD. Conditions like strabismus (where eyes don't align correctly) can be present from birth.

  • Refractive Errors: Different refractive errors between the two eyes (anisometropia) can contribute to BVD. If one eye is more nearsighted or farsighted than the other, it can cause issues with binocular vision.

  • Systemic Diseases: Conditions like diabetes or multiple sclerosis, which can affect nerve function, can also be associated with BVD.

  • Eye Surgery or Trauma: Surgeries, particularly those affecting eye muscles or resulting in scar tissue, can cause or exacerbate BVD. Similarly, direct trauma to the eye or surrounding structures can lead to binocular vision issues.

  • Developmental Issues: In some cases, especially in children, the visual system doesn't develop correctly, leading to BVD.

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