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The History of Vision Therapy

Updated: Sep 28, 2023

Vision therapy, a type of physical therapy for the eyes and brain, has a rich history dating back to the 19th century. This therapy aims to resolve visual issues and enhance visual skills like eye movement, eye focusing, and teamwork. The evolution of vision therapy is a testament to the advancements in understanding visual processes and the intricate relationship between the eyes and the brain.

19th Century: The Origins

Vision therapy began in the 19th century, with the work of physicians like Dr. Hermann von Helmholtz, who developed the ophthalmoscope in 1851, enabling detailed examination of the inner eye. The late 1800s also saw the development of orthoptics by Sir John Herbert Parsons, focusing primarily on strabismus and the training of eye muscles, laying the foundation for modern vision therapy techniques.

Helmholtz Ophthalmoscope, 1851
Helmholtz Ophthalmoscope, 1851

20th Century: Expansion and Standardization

The 20th century marked significant progress with the emergence of behavioral optometry. Dr. A.M. Skeffington, the father of behavioral optometry, introduced the concept in the early 1900s, emphasizing the relationship between vision and behavior. His work highlighted that idea is not just seeing clearly but also involves understanding what is seen, paving the way for holistic approaches in vision therapy.

Dr. A.M Skeffington
Dr. A.M Skeffington

The mid-1900s witnessed the standardization and formalization of vision therapy techniques. Pioneers like Dr. Frederick Brock and Dr. John Streff developed methods like the Brock String and the accommodative rock technique, fundamental tools in vision therapy. The focus expanded beyond eye muscles to include neurological aspects of vision, acknowledging the role of the brain in visual perception and processing.

Brock String
Brock String

Late 20th Century to Present: Technological Integration

The advent of computer technology in the late 20th century revolutionized vision therapy. Computerized programs provided personalized, adaptive, and engaging therapy sessions, enhancing efficacy and patient experience. The integration of virtual reality in the 21st century has further advanced therapy techniques, allowing for immersive and interactive experiences, catering to a wide range of visual issues.

Research and clinical studies in the late 20th and 21st centuries have solidified the evidence base for vision therapy. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of vision therapy in managing conditions like amblyopia, convergence insufficiency, and learning-related vision problems. This has led to the broader acceptance and recommendation of vision therapy by optometrists and ophthalmologists.

Vivid Vision virtual reality game
Vivid Vision virtual reality game

Educational Emphasis and Advocacy

The connection between vision and learning has been increasingly emphasized, with vision therapy playing a crucial role in addressing learning difficulties related to visual skills. Educational institutions and pediatricians are becoming more aware of the impact of visual anomalies on learning, advocating for early vision assessments and interventions.

Organizations like the College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD) and the Optometric Extension Program Foundation (OEPF) have been pivotal in promoting education, research, and clinical care in vision therapy, raising awareness, and advocating for its recognition as a viable treatment option for various visual disorders.


The history of vision therapy reflects the continuous pursuit of understanding the complexity of vision and the development of innovative solutions to enhance visual function. Vision therapy has evolved tremendously since its initial conception. It has transitioned from a niche treatment focused mainly on muscle training to a comprehensive and holistic approach addressing the multifaceted nature of vision involving the eyes, brain, and behavior. The future of vision therapy holds promising advancements, with ongoing research and technological innovations poised to further enrich the field and improve visual health and quality of life for individuals worldwide.

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